Gun smoke poisoning prevention measures

When blasting in a well, blasting explosives tends to generate a gas containing a large amount of toxic components. Due to the narrow working space of the well and the poor ventilation conditions, it is easy to cause the concentration of toxic gases to exceed the standard, posing a serious threat to the health and safety of the construction workers. According to relevant statistics, in the blasting projects at home and abroad, the deaths from gun poisoning accounted for 28.3% of the total blasting accidents. It can be seen that toxic gas is one of the important causes of death accidents in the underground, and it must be paid enough attention to this.

1. The main components and harmfulness of toxic gases in gunpowder

In the artillery smoke generated by explosives, the main components of toxic gases are carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. If the explosive contains sulfur or sulfide, toxic gases such as hydrogen sulfide and sulfuric anhydride are formed during the explosion. These gases are extremely harmful. When the human body inhales a certain amount of toxic gas, it can cause headache, heart palpitations, vomiting, weakness of the limbs, fainting, and heavy convulsions, respiratory pauses, and even death.

2. Control measures for toxic gases

2.1 Preferred explosives and strict control of a single explosive charge

In the process of tunnel blasting, the explosives should be selected according to the actual situation of the working face. For example, when working area water, water-resistant explosives should be used. Otherwise, a large amount of toxic gas will be generated due to the dampness of the explosives and the stable propagation of the detonation. For the construction of low temperature freezing wells, antifreeze type explosives should be used, otherwise the explosives will be interrupted by incomplete explosion or detonation, resulting in a large amount of toxic gases. The amount of toxic gas generated by blasting is directly proportional to the amount of explosives, and the amount of blasting charge can be strictly controlled, which can effectively reduce the amount of toxic gas generated by blasting.

2.2 Control the weight of the shell material of the explosive

In order to prevent moisture, powdered explosives are usually wrapped in a stenciled paper shell. Since both paper and wax are combustible materials, the oxygen in the explosive is taken up, and the explosive is reacted negatively in the event of an explosion. In the case where the amount of oxygen is not sufficient, more carbon monoxide gas will be generated, and therefore, the weight of the paper shell and the amount of wax applied per 100 g of the explosive are not more than 2 g and 2.5 g, respectively.

2.3 Guarantee the clogging length and clogging quality of the blasthole

To ensure the clogging length and the quality of the clogging, the explosive can be exploded. Before the medium is broken, the high temperature and high pressure state are maintained in the charging hole, which is beneficial to the full reaction of the explosive and reduce the amount of toxic gas generated. Moreover, sufficient clogging length and good clogging quality will also reduce the unreacted or insufficiently reacted explosive particles throwing the reaction zone from the charging surface, and also reduce the toxic gas content in the air.

2.4 using water seal blasting or shooting spray

When the explosive explodes, a high temperature and high pressure environment will be formed. The water mist generated during the water seal explosion will react with carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen under high temperature and high pressure, which can effectively reduce the concentration of carbon monoxide in the gun smoke. Since some toxic gases generated by blasting are easily soluble in water, spraying with an automatic spray device can reduce the dust content and effectively reduce the toxic gas content and reduce the toxicity of the gun.

2.5 using reverse detonation

When the reverse detonation method is adopted, the time when the mucus starts to move is delayed than the positive detonation, which indirectly increases the length of the clogging of the blasthole, so that the explosive reaction is completely improved, thereby reducing the amount of toxic gas generated.

3, local ventilation

The boring work surface is generally not equipped with fresh air by the ventilator installed on the ground. In order to make the boring work surface have enough fresh air for the staff to breathe, dilute and eliminate the gun smoke, dilute and eliminate toxic and harmful gases, Heat and water vapor, etc., install a local fan in the roadway at a certain distance from the heading face, and connect the air duct to the air outlet of the local fan to send the wind to the heading face. The local ventilator is responsible for the important task of supplying air to the heading face all day and night. Therefore, each local ventilator must be managed by the designated personnel, and the following management system should be strictly implemented.

1. It is necessary to ensure that the local ventilator is always in operation. No matter whether the boring working face is normally produced or handed over, it is not allowed to stop the wind at will, and it is necessary to ensure sufficient air volume for the boring working face.

2. When the wind is stopped due to maintenance or power failure, the personnel must be evacuated to cut off the power supply of all equipment in the working face. Therefore, the local ventilator and the electrical equipment in the heading face must be equipped with wind power locking devices.

3. Before the ventilation is restored, it is not allowed to send electricity and enter the work. Before the ventilation is restored, the gas must be inspected. If the gas concentration in the airflow within 10 meters near the local ventilation machine and the switch site does not exceed 0.5%, the local fan can be manually activated. .

4. Press-in local ventilator and starting device must be installed in the air inlet roadway, and the air return port should not be less than 10 meters to avoid circulating wind.

5. The start or stop of the local ventilator must be handled by a special person. Other personnel are not allowed to start or stop the local ventilator without permission.

6. The air duct must be hung on the side of the roadway. In the roadway, the shed, the cart, and the material handling equipment should not be damaged. When the gun is fired, the air duct cannot be broken. The air cylinder should be hung, straightened, and sturdy. The corner should be gentle. Do not wrinkle the air duct. Use the same specifications of the air duct.

7. After the local ventilator is started, the blades will rotate very fast. Do not put your hands in, or stuff the wooden sticks and other things into it.

8. If the same tube is found to be broken, report the ventilation personnel immediately so that it can be repaired immediately to avoid air leakage and affect the ventilation of the driving face. Everyone in the well should take care of the local ventilator and the same cylinder, because it is the health, personal safety and safe production of the boring face and related personnel, so everyone should pay attention to the operation of the local ventilator and find abnormal conditions. Immediately report the ventilator or dispatch room for immediate processing.

4, single headed into the gun poisoning prevention measures

4.1 All single-head tunneling operations must use mechanical ventilation, using the fan to connect the air duct to extract the gun smoke, and prohibit the use of high-pressure wind for ventilation;

4.2 Single-head ventilation with a length of less than 100m for single-head tunneling, and mixed ventilation for more than 100m (ie, mixing and pressing).

4.3 Press-in fan should be installed in the upper air flow not less than 10m, and the end of the extraction type air duct should be connected to the lower airflow not less than 10m or directly into the return air duct. The distance between the fan air duct mouth and the working surface is not more than 10m, the pull-out type is not more than 5m, the mixed type air inlet air duct is not more than 10m, and the suction type air duct suction port should be more than 5m behind the press-in type air duct outlet.

4.4 The connection between the fan and the air cylinder, the connection between the air cylinder and the air cylinder, must ensure the quality, ensure straight, no air leakage, the corner should be smooth, the joint should be strict;

4.5 The air rope lifting must use the traction rope. The position of the air cylinder installation must ensure that it does not affect the normal production operation.

4.6 When multiple fans are used to extract the gun smoke, the fan air ducts can be connected as a whole, but the power of the fan close to the head should be as large as possible. The starter fan should first start one near the head and start in turn.

4.7 After the air cylinder is installed, it is necessary to strengthen the daily maintenance, management, and local air leakage points. The air duct that must be glued and cannot be refilled must be replaced by the entire air duct.

4.8 The same fan can only use the same diameter of the air duct. Under the conditions allowed by the tunnel section, try to use the large diameter air duct to shorten the gun smoke discharge time.

4.9 The installed fan and air duct must be inspected and confirmed by a special person every day. The problem is immediately dealt with to ensure normal operation and ensure safe ventilation.

4.10 For the construction of the blind middle section, after the excavation on the patio, when the fan cannot be supported, the high-pressure wind can be used for ventilation. After the conditions are met, the fan must be installed immediately.

4.11 For high-patio work, if it is more than 30m, high-pressure air ventilation can be used appropriately.

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