Most vehicle exhaust testing equipment is not off
Under the consensus of anti-pollution prevention in the whole society, the detection of motor vehicle exhaust in China, which should have become a key link in supervision, has been confusing. Some people in the industry even criticized it as â€œbasically out of controlâ€. Among them, the detection equipment that does not conform to the standard and the non-conformity is generally not critical but is a major "hard injury." â€œThe purpose of environmental testing for motor vehicles is to identify highly polluting vehicles. The premise for achieving this goal is to test standards and standards. However, unfortunately, due to inadequate supervision in all aspects and driven by some interests, the testing equipment There are a lot of problems on its own," said Han Yingjian, a researcher at the Ministry of Environmental Protection's motor vehicle emission monitoring center.
No hardware threshold software more falsification
The testing organization is â€œmiscellaneous, chaotic, and moreâ€. The testing equipment is not reliable and the testing procedures are not standardized. As a result, there are a large number of counterfeiting activities in the two stages of new vehicle (before sales) and in-use vehicle (after sales) exhaust gas testing. The limits of motor vehicle testing methods and testing standards are not uniform throughout the country. The maximum limit of new vehicle emission standards is more than 20 times higher than the maximum emission standards in use.
As early as 2011, the Ministry of Environmental Protection carried out inspections on nearly 1,000 motor vehicle environmental protection inspection agencies throughout the country, and identified more than 200 items of illegal, irregular and non-standard inspections. The Ministry of Environmental Protection subsequently issued a document stating that the regular environmental inspections of motor vehicles in some areas revealed problems such as non-standard inspection procedures, poor reliability of testing equipment, and low technical level of employees. Some areas even experienced negligence and falsification, which seriously affected the pollution of motor vehicles. The implementation effect of prevention and control policies and measures.
Environmental inspection agencies not only have problems with hardware such as equipment, but also have more severe software fraud issues. Since the testing and control software is developed by each equipment manufacturer, the equipment manufacturer can freely adjust the operating software to meet the requirements of the testing organization to attract the owner. The standard is low and the height is high. After software falsification, whether the vehicle is equipped with catalysts for purification of exhaust gas, the test data are almost the same; the test results are almost the same for vehicles traveling 30,000 kilometers and traveling 250,000 kilometers.
The detection of equipment problems has resulted in 'discounted' vehicle test results. Many high-emission vehicles are therefore lucky to pass the test. Although the number of high-emission vehicles is a small number, the proportion of emission pollution accounts for a large proportion, thus affecting and dragging air improvement. What is even more deplorable is that the green light on unqualified detection equipment has caused a vicious circle of long-term counterfeiting in China's vehicle exhaust gas testing equipment and detection data.
National standards are not mandatory
Key indicators do not test
Accurate exhaust gas testing equipment is an important technical measure to accurately detect the amount of pollutants discharged from vehicles. However, domestic regulations and measures for the measurement of motor vehicle exhaust gas testing equipment are lacking, and there are many regulations and standards for exhaust gas detection on the surface, and there are many regulatory links. Actually, the regulatory standards are in disarray. In particular, national standards that are not enforced cannot form effective supervision.
It is understood that the state imposes a manufacturing verification system on metrological instruments under statutory management and a metrological verification system. China's metrology law requires that exhaust gas testing equipment must obtain a manufacturing license. However, the statutory national "Measurement Apparatus Catalog" does not include exhaust gas detection equipment, including only analytical equipment for detection equipment. Some formal exhaust gas testing equipment companies believe that this is abandoning supervision from the source of production.
Local environmental protection agencies pay attention to issues such as venues, personnel, and qualification materials in the inspection of environmental inspection agencies. They do not examine the contents of the equipment and cannot assess the quality of inspection data. Dr. Yaosheng Sheng, Ph.D., School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jianzhu University, has been engaged in research on environmental testing methods for motor vehicles for many years. He said that currently there are mainly four kinds of vehicle exhaust gas detection methods in China, namely double idle speed method, steady state working mode method, simple working condition method and transient working condition method, of which the simple working condition method is the most advanced.
At present, due to the national standards for exhaust gas testing equipment (GB18285-2005) "Emission Detection System for Simple Transient Conditions of Gasoline Vehicles" and the "HJ/T290-2006" issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the "Exhaust Contamination of Gasoline Vehicles under Simple Transient Conditions" The technical requirements for material measuring equipment are not enforceable. The only metrological verification agency entrusted by each geological supervision bureau is the local Institute of Metrology Science. Their technical assessment of testing equipment is generally out of the technical specifications of the above standards, and even will The pollutant discharge quality 'mg/s' (g/s) flow test was changed to dilute oxygen concentration test', key indicators such as variable load loading glide, response time, loading error, consistency, pressure, temperature, flow repeatability, etc. It does not test at all, which makes it possible to make frequent use of the exhaust gas inspection equipment that is capable of filling up the counterfeit and counterfeit gas, and successfully obtain the "Test Certificate for Metrological Verification".
There are about 4000 or more sets of equipment for testing in-use vehicle exhaust emissions in the country, but 90% of them are piece-by-piece counterfeit and inferior technologies, and the detection data error is as high as 30% or more. The National Motor Vehicle Pollution Prevention and Control Professional Committee deputy director and chairman of the board of the Zhongguancun Air Pollution Prevention and Control Association Yan Yanqing said that in China, there is a widespread lack of oversight in the detection of motor vehicle exhausts, fraudulent cheats by testing organizations, and the detection of motor vehicle exhaust emissions.
Yan Yuqing showed the reporter a form on the results of self-examination of 647 testing lines of 183 testing facilities in Shandong Province in 2014. The results of this self-examination show that in addition to Beijing Golden Star Technology Co., Ltd. and Foshan Analytical Instrument Co., Ltd., the detection equipment of the Shandong Province's circumstance inspection agencies are patchwork, and the proportion is as high as 95%. Yan Yuqing stated that the problem of patchwork equipment is "very common" in the domestic environmental inspection agencies.
"Three is not a red top agency"
Monopoly measurement and certification market
The Zhongguancun Air Pollution Prevention and Control Coalition is composed of companies and experts from four fields: motor vehicles, industry, dust, and pollution prevention and control. A survey conducted by the Zhongguancun Air Pollution Prevention and Control Alliance found that the collusion of counterfeiting by metrology and certification agencies is the crux of the widespread counterfeiting of environmental inspection equipment. These institutions monopolize the market, and their certification frauds have led to a series of counterfeiting actions such as the production of motor vehicle exhaust inspection equipment and test reports.
Yan Shuqing called these measurement certification organizations â€œthree non-red top agenciesâ€. "They are not government agencies, they are not professional organizations for technical research, and they are not legal entities that have the responsibility to perform actions. However, these institutions can participate in the formulation of policies, authoritative review of technology, and market supervision and control."
Yan Yuqing believes that to break the monopoly of testing and certification bodies, it is necessary to accelerate the development of third-party inspection, inspection and certification services so that different ownership inspection and certification organizations can participate in market competition on an equal basis. Technical assessment reports and inspection reports at all stages shall be publicly disclosed to the public and subject to social supervision, so that the exhaust gas inspection data can be truly valid.
In view of the chaos in the automotive exhaust gas testing market, several experts suggested that a comprehensive inventory of inspection equipment be required, and metrology and environmental protection agencies should entrust professional technical agencies to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the detection equipment technology, which is higher than 10% for non-compliance with national standards and detection data. The device must prohibit its detection. At the same time, the relevant departments shall change the supervision of the environmental inspection agencies into the supervision of the quality of testing data. The production and testing equipment shall obtain the â€œCertificate of Manufacturing Measuring Instrumentsâ€ (CMC) to ensure the quality of testing equipment; the use of testing equipment for testing shall be achieved. Laboratory qualification (CMA) to ensure data quality.
Yao Shengzhuo suggested that the national key areas should unify the exhaust gas detection methods, speed up the formulation, addition, and revision of relevant standards, regulations, procedures, and technical requirements, and develop new methods, new technologies, and new equipment for the detection and verification of tail gas emissions.
The National Development and Reform Commission and other departments issued the "Notice of Strengthening the "Cheyou Road" Plan to Accelerate the Advancement of Integrated Vehicle Pollution Prevention and Control Program" last year, requiring that special inspections be conducted by environmental protection inspection agencies since 2015 to conduct a comprehensive inspection of all inspection agencies and to defraud. The dereliction of duty of motor vehicle exhaust testing agencies is punished according to law and regulations, and is included in the blacklist management and announced to the public.
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